《社会语言学导论》各章节名词解释

社会语言学教材《An Introduction to Sociolinguistics》有Ronald Wardhaugh编写,是语言学专业作为通识课程的专用教材,下面分章节整理本人认为该书中比较重要的名词解释,供大家参考。

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.Diglossia P89 标题下面一段
2.H variety & L variety P89倒数第2段
3.Bilingualism & Multilingualism P96
4.Code-Switching P101 (Types, Factors)

Chapter 2: Languages, Dialects, and Varieties
1.Diglossia P89 标题下面一段
2.H variety & L variety P89倒数第2段
3.Bilingualism & Multilingualism P96
4.Code-Switching P101 (Types, Factors)

Chapter 3: Pidgins and Creoles
1.Diglossia P89 标题下面一段
2.H variety & L variety P89倒数第2段
3.Bilingualism & Multilingualism P96
4.Code-Switching P101 (Types, Factors)

Chapter 4: Codes
1.Diglossia P89 标题下面一段
2.H variety & L variety P89倒数第2段
3.Bilingualism & Multilingualism P96
4.Code-Switching P101 (Types, Factors)

Chapter 5:Speech Communities
1.Speech Community定义:P119开头前五行( Lyons P120,Labov P121,Gumperz P122,Hymes P123);
2.Intersecting Communities:A community or group will be any set of individual unites for a common end, that end being quite distinct from ends pursued by other groups. So, a person may belong at any one time to many different groups or communities depending on the particular ends in view;
3.Networks and Repertoires:P131第三段。

Chapter 6:Language Variation
1.dialect atalses and isogloss P131
2.linguistic variable P137 3. Questionaire (149) 4. random sample (151-152) 5.stratified sample (151-152) 6. dependent variable and independent variables (151-152) 7.indicator, marker, stereotype (140)

Chapter 7:Some Findings and Issues
-overt prestige: seeking prestige by assimilating to the standard
--covert prestige:choosing to differ from the standard
In 1966, Labov (1966/1982: 49) says the linguistic variable must be ‘high in frequency, have a certain immunity from conscious suppression … [be] integral units of larger structures, and … be easily quantified on a linear scale’. Furthermore, the linguistic variable was required to be ‘highly stratified’ and to have ‘an asymmetric distribution over a wide range of age levels or other ordered strata of the society’

Chapter 8:Change
1.phonemic coalescence p191
2.phonemic split p191
3.lexical diffusion p121

Chapter 9:Words and Culture
Kinship P229
Taxonomies P232
Prototypes P237
Taboo and Euphemism P238-P239

Chapter 10:Ethnographies
8 factors (SPEACKING) 243--244页,
Ethnonmethodology 247页,
commonsense knowledge 和 practical reasoning 249页

Chapter 11:Solidarity and Politeness
1.T/V distinction p 260
2.asymmetrical T/V usage; symmetrical v usage; symmetrical u usage; p 261
3.asymmetrical use of title; mutual FN; mutual TLN; p 268
4. positive face; negative face; positive politeness; negative politeness; p 277

Chapter 12:Talk and Action
P 285 Constative utterances (第一段);Performative utterances(第三段);
Explicit performative(最后一段)
P286 Five categories of performatives(第二段)
P 287 Locutions;Illocutionary acts;Perlocutionary force
P288 Promise-making(第二段)
P291 Cooperation Rules
P296 Planned speech & Unplanned speech
P297 Locally manned(第三段); adjacency pair(第四段)
P 298 turn-taking (第四段)
P 303 insertion sequence(第一段);repairs(最后一段)

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