《评估语言:英语评价系统》(英文版) 英语专业系统功能语言学用书 | The system-functional linguistics book for English majors: “The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English”(English version)

《评估语言:英语评价系统》(英文版)是第一部全面系统介绍语言评价系统框架的语言学专著,堪称语篇语义学的扛鼎之作。它以崭新的视解搨示了评估性语言的本质及其社会功能和修辞功能,重新诠释了情态、让步、否定等语义学概念,并通过对选自新闻、政治报道、学术著作、小说等文本的分析,清晰阐明了评价系统在文体分析中的应用,是了解、研究语篇语义学的必读书目。

内容提要:

本书共设五章。第一章“绪论”介绍本书的基本思想、评价系统在系统功能语法里的位置以及评价系统的概貌。

Martin和White在简要说明评价系统涉及人际功能,以及人际功能研究的重要性之后,分析了两封读者来信,初步点明了表达评价意义的语言资源。

本章的重点是第二节“语言功能模式中的评价系统”。文中首先概括介绍系统功能语言学的有关概念以及与评价系统的关系,如:概念、人际、篇章三大元功能,音系学/文字学、词汇语法、语篇语义学三层次,系统概念以及情态系统的几种不同表述方式,语言的粒子状结构、韵律状结构、周期性结构,大单位由小单位示例(instantiation)的思想,词语发生学、个体发生学、种系发生学,以及语境、语域和语类等。

接着,两位作者指出,评价系统(appraisal)是在语篇语义学层面表达人际意义的三个系统之一,其他两个系统是协商系统(negotiation)和参与系统(involvement)。评价系统本身又分成介入(engagement)、态度(attitude)、级差(graduation)三个子系统。这三个子系统又进一步分别分成单声、多声,情感、判断、鉴赏,语势、聚焦等。

 第二章“态度——表达感情的方法”,集中讨论态度子系统。如上文所述,态度子系统又分成情感(affect)、判断(judgement)、鉴赏(appreciation)三个小系统。这三者是什么关系呢?Martin和White在第一节先讨论这个问题。他们指出,情感涉及人们正面或反面的感情,如高兴/痛苦,自信/担忧,感兴趣/厌烦等。判断涉及人们对行为的态度,如赞美/批评,表扬/谴责等。鉴赏则是对一些现象是否有价值的评估,如是否完善、美丽等。换言之,情感是情绪性的,是对行为的反应;判断是伦理性的,是对行为的评估;鉴赏则是美学性的,是对现象的评估。

作者简介:

作者:(澳)马丁 (Martin.J.R.) (澳)怀特 (White.P.R.R.)

本书由James R.Martin和Peter R.R.White师生合著。Martin 1950年出生在加拿大新不伦瑞克省圣斯蒂芬市,1968年考取多伦多的约克大学格伦顿学院。他从英语系主任Michael Gregory那里第一次接受了Halliday的语言学思想,同时,又从Henry Allen Gleason,的学生Waldemar Gutwinski那里接受了关于语篇结构的理论。大学毕业以后,他到多伦多大学师从Gleason进一步学习语篇分析。1975年,他获得硕士学位后,前往英国艾塞克斯跟随Halliday攻读博士学位。这期间他有一年半时间在加拿大跟Gleason做研究,然后随.Halliday到悉尼,在那里完成了学业。此后,他一直在悉尼大学语言学系任教。2000年晋升教授,并当选澳大利亚人文科学院院士。2003年因为在语言学和哲学领域的贡献荣获澳大利亚联邦建国百年特殊贡献奖。

White 1956年出生,曾在澳大利亚的报纸和电台担任过记者、编辑,并在澳大利亚特别节目广播事业局(SpeciM Broadcasting Service,SBS)担任过培训新闻工作者的教官。1998年他以论文((讲述媒体故事——作为修辞的新闻故事》(’Telling media tales:the news story as rhetoric)在悉尼大学获博士学位。此后,他在英国伯明翰大学讲授了7年语言学和英语课程,现在澳大利亚阿德莱德大学语言学系担任讲师。

两人的学术背景决定了他们的学术兴趣。他们对系统功能语法和语篇分析都有精辟、独到的研究,因此特别关注如何把这两者进行有机的结合。Martin从1979年开始在悉尼大学讲授自己对这个问题的认识,把这门课称为“语篇语义学”(discourse semantics)。1992年他把这门课程的讲稿整理出版,定名为《英语篇章——系统与结构》(English Text?System and跏ucture)。

目录:

List of Figures
List of Tables
Acknowledgements
Preface
1 Introduction
1.1 Modelling appraisal resources
1.2 Appraisal in a functional model of language
1.3 Situating appraisal in SFL
1.4 Appraisal-an overview
1.5 Appraisal and other traditions of evaluative language analysis
1.6 Outline of this book
2 Attitude: Ways of Feeling
2.1 Kinds of feeling
2.2 Affect
2.3 Judgement
2.4 Appreciation
2.5 Borders
2.6 Indirect realisations
2.7 Beyond attitude
2.8 Analysing attitude
3 Engagement and Graduation: Alignment, Solidarity and the Construed Reader
3.1 Introduction: a dialogic perspective
3.2 Value position, alignment and the putative reader
3.3 The resources of intersubjective stance: an overview of engagement
3.4 Engagement and the dialogistic status of bare assertions
3.5 Heteroglossia: dialogic contraction and expansion
3.6 Entertain: the dialogistic expansiveness of modality and evidentiality
3.7 Dialogistic expansion through the externalised proposition-attribution
3.8 The resources of dialogic contraction -overview: disclaim and proclaim
3.9 Disclaim: deny (negation)
3.10 Disclaim: counter
3.11 Proclaim: concur, pronounce and endorse
3.12 Proclaim: concur
3.13 Proclaim: endorsement
3.14 Proclaim: pronounce
3.15 Engagement, intertextuality and the grammar of reported speech
3.16 Graduation: an overview
3.17 Graduation: focus
3.18 Graduation: force - intensification and quantification
3.19 Force: intensification
3.20 Force: quantification
3.21 Force (intensification and quantification),attitude and writer-reader relationships
3.22 Analysing intersubjective positioning
4 Evaluative Key: Taking a Stance
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Evaluative key in journalistic discourse-the 'voices' of news, analysis and commentary
4.3 Evaluative key and the discourses of secondary-school history
4.4 Stance
4.5 Signature
4.6 Evaluation and reaction
4.7 Coda ...
5 Enacting Appraisal: Text Analysis
5.1 Appraising discourse
5.2 War or Peace: a rhetoric of grief and hatred
5.3 Mourning: an unfortunate case of keystone cops
5.4 Envoi
References
Index

This is the first comprehensive account of the Appraisal Framework. The underlying linguistic theory is explained and justified, and the application of this flexible tool, which has been applied to a wide variety of text and discourse analysis issues, is demonstrated throughout by sample text analyses from a range of registers, genres and fields.

About the Author

JAMES R. MARTIN is Professor of Linguistics (Personal Chair) at the University of Sydney, Australia. His research interests include systemic theory, functional grammar, discourse semantics, register, genre, multimodality and critical discourse analysis, focussing on English and Tagalog - with special reference to the transdisciplinary fields of educational linguistics and social semiotics. Recent publications include Working with Discourse (with David Rose, 2003), Re/Reading the Past (edited with Ruth Wodak, 2003), Genre Relations (with David Rose, 2006), and Knowledge Structure ( edited with Fran Christie, 2007). Professor Martin was elected a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities in 1998, and was awarded a Centenary Medal for his services to Linguistics and Philology in 2003.

PETER R.R. WHITE is Lecturer in Linguistics and Media at the University of Adelaide, South Australia. His most recent publications include Appraisal - the Language of Evaluation and Stance' in The Handbook of Pragmatics. He maintains an email and discussion list on Appraisal theory at www.grammatics.com/appraisal. He is a former print, radio and television journalist and journalism trainer.

Introduction to this book

Poynton 1985 outlines important realisation principles for both powerand solidarity, principles which unfortunately to date have not beenproperly explored. For power, she considers 'reciprocity' of choice to be thecritical variable. Thus social subjects of equal status construe equality byhaving access to and taking up the same kinds of choices, whereas subjectsof unequal status take up choices of different kinds. Terms of address areone obvious exemplar in this area. It is easy to imagine an English-speaking academic addressing an Asian student by their first name, andthey in turn addressing the academic as Professor, just as it is easy to imagecolleagues addressing one another by their first names (as Peter and Jim).But for an Asian student to address their Professor as Jim would come as asurprise, whatever the expressed naming preferences of the academic inquestion. Ethnicity, generation and the student-teacher relationship allfacilitate non-reciprocal address.' From this example we can see that it isnot just a question of reciprocity, but also of the different kinds of choicesthat might be available for interlocutors in dominant and deferential posi-tions. As far as appraisal is concerned, this principle affects who canexpress feelings and who can't, what kinds of feelings are expressed, howstrongly they are expressed, and how directly they are sourced. For solidarity Poynton suggests the realisation principles of 'prolifera-tion' and 'contraction'. Proliferation refers to the idea that the closeryou are to someone the more meanings you have available to exchange.One way of thinking about this is to imagine the process of getting toknow someone and what you can talk about when you don't knowthem (very few things) and what you can talk about when you knowthem very well (almost anything). In appraisal terms this might involveappreciation of the weather to begin, judgements of politicians, sportingheroes and media personalities as the relationship develops, moving onto emotional reactions to family, friends and lovers as intimacy develops.Social subjects differ about how much proliferation is appropriate when.Sitting with a group of British and Australian colleagues at a seafoodrestaurant in Seattle, Peter and Jim were once surprised to have theirwaiter sit down and describe his reactions to various items on the menuwithout being asked for his opinion about a specific item. His attempt toconstrue good friendly service was read as intrusive by the 'outsiders',and allowances had to be made on the part of the visiting social semi-oticians for cultural differences (happily furnished as they were with yetanother travel story from America which they would use to bond withfamily, friends and colleagues back home).

Contents

List of Figures
List of Tables
Acknowledgements
Preface
1 Introduction
1.1 Modelling appraisal resources
1.2 Appraisal in a functional model of language
1.3 Situating appraisal in SFL
1.4 Appraisal-an overview
1.5 Appraisal and other traditions of evaluative language analysis
1.6 Outline of this book
2 Attitude: Ways of Feeling
2.1 Kinds of feeling
2.2 Affect
2.3 Judgement
2.4 Appreciation
2.5 Borders
2.6 Indirect realisations
2.7 Beyond attitude
2.8 Analysing attitude
3 Engagement and Graduation: Alignment, Solidarity and the Construed Reader
3.1 Introduction: a dialogic perspective
3.2 Value position, alignment and the putative reader
3.3 The resources of intersubjective stance: an overview of engagement
3.4 Engagement and the dialogistic status of bare assertions
3.5 Heteroglossia: dialogic contraction and expansion
3.6 Entertain: the dialogistic expansiveness of modality and evidentiality
3.7 Dialogistic expansion through the externalised proposition-attribution
3.8 The resources of dialogic contraction -overview: disclaim and proclaim
3.9 Disclaim: deny (negation)
3.10 Disclaim: counter
3.11 Proclaim: concur, pronounce and endorse
3.12 Proclaim: concur
3.13 Proclaim: endorsement
3.14 Proclaim: pronounce
3.15 Engagement, intertextuality and the grammar of reported speech
3.16 Graduation: an overview
3.17 Graduation: focus
3.18 Graduation: force - intensification and quantification
3.19 Force: intensification
3.20 Force: quantification
3.21 Force (intensification and quantification),attitude and writer-reader relationships
3.22 Analysing intersubjective positioning
4 Evaluative Key: Taking a Stance
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Evaluative key in journalistic discourse-the 'voices' of news, analysis and commentary
4.3 Evaluative key and the discourses of secondary-school history
4.4 Stance
4.5 Signature
4.6 Evaluation and reaction
4.7 Coda ...
5 Enacting Appraisal: Text Analysis
5.1 Appraising discourse
5.2 War or Peace: a rhetoric of grief and hatred
5.3 Mourning: an unfortunate case of keystone cops
5.4 Envoi
References
Index

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