PART I DICTATION [15 MIN ]
Listen to the following passage. Altogether the passage will be read to you four times. During the first reading, which will be done at normal speed, listen and try to understand the meaning. For the second and third readings, the passage will be read sentence by sentence, or phrase by phrase, with intervals of 15 seconds. The last reading will be done at normal speed again and during this time you should check your work. You will then be given 2 minutes to check through your work once more.
Please write the whole passage on ANSWER SHEET ONE. Now, listen to the passage.
A dictionary is a reference book that focuses on defining words and phrases, including multiple meanings. The most frequently used dictionary is a language dictionary that includes the majority of frequently used words in a language. Language dictionaries are made for different types of users: scholars, office workers, schools, and second language learners. There are many competing dictionaries put out by different companies. Not only do they have different forms-paperback, hardback, and online editions-but they differ in other ways. Each company, for example, uses its own version of phonetic respelling based on the research done by its experts. Other differences between dictionaries show up in other features. Many dictionaries include their experts' guidance on grammar, usage, and the history of the language. Definitions differ slightly, and sample sentences may be the work of the editorial staff or taken from real-world usage, perhaps the first known written use.